Friday, December 27, 2013

Reformer's Post

They  had been chained day and night to their bedsteads, and kept in a state so  filthy that it was sickening to go near them. — They were usually  restrained by the strait‐waistcoat, and with collars round their necks, the  collars being fastened with chains or straps to the upper part of the  bedstead, to prevent, it was said their tearing their clothes. The feet were  fastened with iron leg‐locks and chains.

The men patients were chiefly employed in  cultivating the farm, working the garden, improving the grounds  constructing fences, cutting wood. and attending to stock. The women  were engaged in sewing, knitting, spinning, and assisting in various  departments of house‐work, and other occupations and recreations  suited to their sex.

(Indentation) Dix Lynde Dorothea "Memorial Soliciting a State Hospital for the
Protection and Cure of the Insane" University of North Carolina Chapel Hill. Novermber 1848. University of North Carolina Chapel Hill.‐newnation/4748. (December 23rd, 2013)

Dorothea Dix's purpose in producing this article was to improve the conditions for the mentally insane in the prisons they were being thrown into.  Dix was appalled at the treatment of the mentally insane and sought to change it. This source is very believable because it comes straight from Dix herself and you know that what's in the source are things Dix actually said.

During this time period, the mentally insane were thrown into prisons just like they were criminals.  They were also given horrible living conditions just like regular criminals. This document helps to paint the picture about just how bad life was for these mentally ill people.  The brutal details provided by Dix really make the reader pity the people that went through this.  This document does help to paint a full picture because Dix was a firsthand witness to the mistreatment of these people.

Dix's position in this article is clear, she wants better conditions for the mentally ill people she feels are being mistreated.  Dix uses details that are scary and vivid to try and convince the reader that they should be behind some sort of prison reform. You can tell by the serious tone she uses that she feels strongly about her opinion and wants others to see what she sees and feel how she feels.

Tuesday, November 26, 2013

Andrew Jackson Post

This political cartoon shows the conflict of Andrew Jackson using the veto more than any other president before him. This use of the veto that was the right of the president was frowned upon in the early 19th century.  Jackson was the first president to veto things because of political reasons. The first 6 presidents of the United States vetoed a total of 10 bills during their presidency. The reason this conflict arose was because of Jackson's choice to use the veto 12 times in his 8 years of presidency.  However, 7 out of these 12 vetoes were called pocket vetoes which meant he never actually officially vetoed it.  Instead he would let the document just die on his desk and not act on it at all. 

This political cartoonist believes that Jackson abused his powers. He shows this by calling Jackson "King Andrew the First" and also had him in kings rode and having a staff.  This cartoonist obviously believed that Jackson was acting like more of a monarch rather than being democratic like many people claim he was.

However, my personal opinion is that Jackson does deserve his democratic reputation.  I don't understand why the cartoonist feels like Jackson is being a monarch, he is simply using a power that comes with the title of the president of the United States. If the president does not agree with a bill, it is his right to veto it.  If that's what the president's opinion on the matter is, he should be allowed to do. And the people of the US can't get mad because they elected the president with the opinion he has, so they should be supportive of his veto decisions.

Saturday, November 23, 2013

American Democracy Improves, But It Takes Some Time.

In the 19th century, America was able to overtime become more democratic. In early 19th century, America was barely democratic at all, but they were able to slowly fit the definition of Democracy better and become a better Democratic nation.  Democracy is defined as government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.  In early 19th century, America was anything but Democratic. For example, there were many requirements that people needed to meet in order to vote, including property and tax paying requirements. This meant that the majority of voters were wealthy and therefore the middle and lower classes didn't have much say in the government.
However, this graph shows that over time, as more states joined the union, the number of requirements to vote decreased, meaning more people were able to vote and have their voices heard in the government.
Another problem with America in the early 19th century was that people weren't even getting to vote at all.
This graph shows that in early 19th century, the people had 0 say in who was elected as a presidential elector. Luckily, overtime, America was able to give more power to the people in almost every state, making America as a country more democratic.

Wednesday, November 20, 2013

Romanticism Blog Post

This romantic piece of artwork is by artist Thomas Jones in 18th century. Romanticism is defined as a artistic, literary, and intellectual movement in Europe during the 18th and 19th century.  There are many elements on Romanticism that appear in this painting.  One element is the awe of nature.  This is shown by the magnificent mountains in the background and the waves crashing in the ocean with a bird also flying overhead.  Another element shown is the emphasis on the individual by the women standing alone on the edge of the cliff. Also, another element shown in this painting is the element of horrifying and grotesque images.  It is a bit horrifying to see a solitary women standing on the edge of a cliff with crashing waves right below her.  This also connects to the last theme in this painting which is the theme of irrational thinking.  It shows irrational thinking because the women is standing alone on a cliff with crashing dangerous waves below her.  Now the rationally thinking person would most likely go away from the cliff but this women is not.

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 Post

The revolutions of 1830 and 1848 were failures like many historians thought they were. One example of a revolution that failed was the Russian revolution of 1825.  The liberalist revolutionaries wanted a constitutional reform of their conservative government.  This revolution was a failure because Nicholas I and the Russian government completely crushed the revolution and killed almost everybody against them. 
Another example of a failed revolution was the French revolution of 1848.  The radical republic wanted to overthrow the current government. Their goals were to get the ruler Louis Phillipe out of power and bring somebody else in to help make new policies.  This revolution was also a failure because they were able to get Louis Phillipe out of power, but the new ruler that came in essentially kept the exact same policies as before.
Finally, another example of a failed revolution was the Frankfurt assembly of 1848.  German liberal nationalists wanted a constitution written to unite all of the German states into one unified country.  The assembly offered a constitution to Frederick IV to rule a united Germany, but he rejected it.  This revolution was a failure because the reform they were looking for only lasted one year and then hundreds of people were killed or imprisoned, and the rest fled Germany taking the last of the revolutionary ideas with them.
Frankfurt Assembly Project:

Friday, November 8, 2013

Selfie Swag Post

The United States reaction to the Quintuple alliance resulted in the creation of the Monroe Doctorine. For example, when Russia came to the northwest coast of the country looking to form colonies, Monroe was not going to let Russia step all over the US. He says, "To the minister of the United States at St. Petersburg to arrange by amicable negotiation the respective rights and interest of the two nations on the northwest coast of this continent." Monroe will arrange a meeting with Russian prime minister but will not just give Russia the land. Another example is when the Quintuple alliance came up with the principle of intervention. Monroe stands up for all of the newly independent nations when he says, "We could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them." Monroe is saying that if anybody tries to retake over the new countries then the US will step in. 

My perspective was from the view of a Latin American revolutionary and I would support the Monroe Doctorine because as a newly independent country, we would like the support of another country just incase some big European power tried to come and take us over again. 

Tuesday, November 5, 2013

Congress of Vienna Blog Post

One of the many problems the congress of Vienna faced was the problem of who would be in power in France. This problem came up after the French Revolution and France had no real ruler to guide them.  The congress came up with the principle of legitimacy, which would restore the lawful monarchs in France but make sure that is wasn't an absolute monarchy like it was before.  The reason the congress needed to be careful with who they put in charge was because France had just gone through a revolution, and putting a ruler in power that ruled similarly to the ruler beforehand could spark another unwanted revolution.  This solution appeals to Metternich because of his conservative views.  The congress was able to restore the throne to the people who had held it before which kept things the same, but minimal changes were needed to keep the peace in France.  The impact of this decision made by the congress pleased both sides.  It made France a constitutional monarchy, which pleased the citizens of France.  It also was able to appeal to Metternich's beliefs because the rulers were able to regain control and it still was still a version of monarchy.

Friday, November 1, 2013

Ideologies Blog Post

For the vine group project, our group had nationalism.  In the 19th century, Nationalism was the ideology  that asserted a nation as a natural organic entity of which the citizens share language bonds, and customs. Nationalism is also large against foreign rulers.  Our vine shows this because Craig and I are Italians that are united by our country.  When Andrew, who represents Austria, tries to come and take over, we unite as a country and expel this foreign ruler.

What I learned from the other blog posts is the ideas of Conservatism and Liberalism. The ideas of liberalism is that for the majority of the population to have an influence in politics.  They also believed in Constitutional Monarchy rather than tyranny.  However, conservatism believed in preserving the traditional government which was an absolute monarchy.  They believed that if average systems took over, it would create chaos and violence.  Socially, they wanted to stop social change and keep the wealthy minority in power.

Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Latin America VS. The British Colonies

The British colonies were better prepared for independence than their neighbors to the south for many reasons. One reason is because of the racial tensions and violence. Another reason was the literacy or lack there of in the new colonies.
The first reason the British colonies were better prepared is because of the racial tensions in violence that were present in Latin America but not in the British colonies.
In Latin America, slaves were the heavy majority of the population.  Therefore, they didn't need much of a reason to revolt because they outnumbered whites and saw a chance for freedom. Tension was also extremely high.  Another reason slaves were an issue in Latin America is because both sides treated the other with extreme brutality. However, in the British colonies, racial tension was not an issue because the whites outnumbered the blacks.  Even if the slaves wanted to rebel, the chance that they would succeed was very low.  Also, this was not an issue because nobody ever brought it up as an issue.  Whites in the British colonies were more focused on a social and political reform at the time rather than a slavery reform.
Another reason the British colonies were better prepared is because of literacy.  In Latin America, only about 10% of the population was literate during the beginning of independence.  Also, the language barrier was much greater in Latin America as many people spoke many different languages.  This was not a problem in the British colonies because nearly 100% of the population was literate and spoke English.  This made it much easier for people to communicate easier for a government to be established.

Monday, October 21, 2013

Haitian Revolution Post

The new republic of Haiti did not receive much attention from other powerful nations around the world.  It was mainly ignored because this new republic was the first glimpse the rest of the world had seen of blacks in some positions of power.  France even made Haiti pay an independence fee which greatly hurt their young economy.  Thomas Jefferson, who was president of the United States at this time, didn't want to trade with Haiti because he was scared that the ideas of revolution would spread to slaves in the United States.  For this reason, the United States didn't help Haiti very much.  It even took the US 6 decades to recognize Haiti as a country.
The failure of the rest of the world to recognize Haiti as a country effected them greatly.  When they first became independent, France charged an independence tax, which greatly hurt their economy. Also, the US refused to help them because they were scared of their own revolution stirring up.  This left Haiti, a brand new country, virtually on their own with nobody to help them. 

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Napoleon Blog Post

Napoleon had many effects on Europe.  One effect he had was socially.  In Europe, Napoleon established a "meritocracy" in which people were rewarded based on their skills, rather than their social class. This caused people from higher social classes to lose their social status unless they worked hard to retain it. This caused people from higher social classes to despise Napoleon while people in lower social classes loved him. Also, all across Europe, French armies got rid of titles of nobility and ended church privileges.

Another effect Napoleon had on Europe was economically.  To restore economic prosperity, Napoleon controlled prices, and built new roads and canals.  This expanded trade and helped control the economy. Also, under Napoleon, more citizens had rights to property and access to education than had been the case before this rule. This made France more equal and educated.

Lastly, another effect Napoleon had on Europe was politically. Like stated before, Napoleon abolished old social classes and had people rewarded on how hard they worked, rather than what they were born into. Napoleon changed the way that Europe had always thought was right way to run things, and made a lasting impact that you can even see today.

Picture Link:

Wednesday, October 9, 2013

GB/US Comparison Post

During the Industrial Revolution, Industrialists were more likely to succeed in Great Britain.  In Great Britain, factories were open longer and the workers were paid less.  Therefore, Industrialism would be able to happen faster because of all the factory work that could happen. The passage stated that girls were locked up from morning until night, almost always doing work. The reason workers were able to be paid so low is because of the abundance of people that were looking for work.  If one person complained or refused to work because of the low wages, plenty of others were more than willing to take their place.  Another reason Industrialists would succeed in Great Britain is because the Industrial Revolution came to Britain before it went and spread to the United States. Industrialists would succeed much more in Great Britain rather than the United States.
During the Industrial Revolution, workers had a much more positive experience in the United States. In the passage about Great Britain, it states that girls were locked up from morning until night and working hard all that time.  These workers had minimal time to eat and had to do work as hard as they could or else risk being fired.  These workers were also paid very poorly, and they couldn't do a thing about it because if the did they could be easily replaced.
However, in the United States, conditions were much better for workers.  They were paid a decent salary, and the conditions were much cleaner compared to the factories in Great Britain. The workers in the United States were given more time to eat and also didn't have to work as many hours throughout the day.  They were given shelter to sleep in if they were younger as well. Working conditions were much better in the United States rather than Great Britain.

Link to Picture:

Thursday, October 3, 2013

Mary Paul Response

During the time where Mary Paul sent letters home from Lowell, her mood and writing tone became worse and worse.  She went from being optimistic and hopeful to being sick and out of a job. In the first letter, she states that she thinks she will have more opportunity in Lowell then she will ever have back home. In her next letter, she states that she has arrived in Lowell and things are going well.  She is making good wages and the boarding place is very nice. However, in the next couple letters, she talks about how she is feeling homesick and wishes her family would come down to see her. She also talks about how her pay is decreasing and the factory overseers are promising wages will return. Finally, in her last two letters, Mary talks about how she was sick for six months and even lost her job. She tried to return but her job was no longer there when she returned.  Mary's experiences show the difficulties encountered at the Lowell mills.
Mary's experience represents the success of the "Lowell Experiment" because it did to Mary exactly what is was designed to.  The Lowell Experiment was designed to bring teenage girls to Lowell to work in factories for generally low wages and then after a few years, when the girls became older, the factories would replace the old girls with new younger ones. This describes Mary's experience pretty well because she went to Lowell as a teenage girl and worked very hard in the mills. She started out making good wages but this soon declined. She then became very ill and the factory had no problem firing her and replacing her with another eager young girl.

Monday, September 30, 2013

Karl Marx PSA

Marx, Karl and Frederich Engels. The Communist Manifesto. (Excerpts)  Modified from the Avalon Project.  1848. Yale University. September 18, 2013).
Marx believed that everybody should be essentially equal.  He believed that everybody should only do what they were capable of but still receive the same amount as everybody else.  Marx's reasoning for producing this document was because he didn't believe in the government that was in charge at the time.  He believed that this new type of government could remove poverty and realize the pressure of social classes from the population.  This document was produced during the industrial revolution.  This document is limited in its explanation of the Industrial Revolution, but Karl Marx did live in London during the Industrial Revolution so we do have a somewhat reliable source.  One again Marx's opinion was that everybody should be equal and hopefully poverty could be avoided. Also, he believed that people of the Communism party should express their views and opinions into the world and not be afraid.

*Indentation was attempted on every line except for the first one.

Monday, September 23, 2013

Luddites RAFT Assignment

The Luddites were a group that attacked factories and tried to destroy machines that had put them out of jobs. They were skilled weavers, mechanics, and other artisans.  They were neither opposed to technology nor for it.  They were against the usage of technology. They were against the training, wages, and conditions that were given to factory workers. They were against overdependence on technology. One first hand source we have is from a young girl that was a new factory worker in this time period.
My Dearest Cousin,
I know you are aware of my new position at the factory, but I must tell you it is just dreadful. They force us to operate these machines and it is much too dangerous for a girl like me.  The wages are horrible, I'm trying to help support my family but with the money I'm making it wont even help.  The conditions are dangerous and dirty and I can't stand it.  Thank goodness the new group they are calling the Luddites are standing up for people like me! They have destroyed many machines and it's given the factory owners much trouble which makes me extremely happy! I don't think I'm fit to join them so I will just pray for them to get us our wages and working conditions back to the way they used to be! I hope to speak to you soon.
Best Wishes,
Your Cousin Mandy

Thursday, September 19, 2013

Curator Response

The curating process was challenging in some ways but also very rewarding at the end.  We started with 6 documents, and then had to analyze them and decide how to arrange them into an "exhibit".  This not only challenged our minds, but our creativity as well.  We had to arrange, caption, and glue our documents to make an appealing and interesting "exhibit".  The process started with simple analyzing of documents, then coming up with a creative title and captions, and finally putting it all together to make a interesting "exhibit". 
After all of this was completed, we got to go around and observe what other groups had created with their documents. Group D's title was "An era built on the backs of children" and their poster helped me learn that children were worked hard in unsafe environments for kids.  They showed 3 different pictures as examples of the hardships that kids went through.
Group E's title was "Cotton and slave boom in the industrial revolution" and they helped me learn that slavery was very prevalent during this time period. They showed a chart and a graph showing just how many slaves were involved.
Group A's title was "Before and After" and they showed us things that happened before the Industrial revolution and things that happened after the industrial revolution.  One interesting fact was that London's population grew 8 times bigger of the course of the industrial revolution.  It also showed us the effect of machines being created on families which caused some family members to lose their jobs. 
Group B's title was "Transporting the industrial revolution" and they showed us some of the effects of the creation of them steam engine and the creation of railroads.  They showed us a map that showed us after the steam engine was created, shipment of coal and other resources were able to happen much faster and therefore help to speed up production of different products.

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

Engels PSA

Engels, Friedrich. The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844. Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1892. Pages 45, 48-53.

In this book, Friedrich Engels is expressing the condition of the working class in England. His purpose for producing this document is to give the people that weren't around during this time period a picture of what is was like back then for the working class. Friedrich Engels is definitely a reliable and trustworthy source because he went through these tough condition when he was 22 and working for a mill. He knows first hand what conditions were like so he is a very believable source. This document teaches us about the hardship for the working class during the Industrial Revolution. It shows that conditions were very tiresome and unsanitary. It teaches us that the people that experienced this went through a lot of hardship.  This document is a little limited however because this is only one person's perspective. It would be better if we had multiple people's perspectives that agreed with each others. The author's opinion is that the working conditions were very dirty and harsh. The evidence this author uses is the places where the workers slept and used as their housing. He describes this area to be severely grimy and filthy and almost unlivable. The author is trying to convince the reader that life was dirty and harsh for the working class during the Industrial Revolution.

*Indentation was attempted on every line except for the first one.

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Syria Seminar Article

          The current situation in Syria is not looking good.  An ongoing civil war has caused the Syrian government to use chemical weapons on their own people.  The group I observed definitely seemed to be confident with the words that they were saying and they definitely had done their research.  Early on, a main focus point of this group was the history behind this civil war and also the different groups that are involved in this war.  They talked a lot about the past to get a better understanding of the topic they were discussing.

One option that was discussed during this meeting was whether to flee the small town that they lived in currently or whether to flee the town looking for a refugee camp.  Some pros of fleeing that town is the thought that their families would be safer is they fled to a refugee camp.  One con however is the debate on whether or not refugee camps are as safe as they sound.  Another good thing is that they chance of them being attacked at a refugee camp is smaller than the chance of them being attacked in their town.  Another bad thing however is that going to a refugee camp would only be a temporary solution and they were discussing whether temporary safety was worth leaving their old lives behind.  Throughout the group, it seemed as though people were split on whether to flee or not.

Next, another discussion topic that they went over was whether or not they supported foreign intervention in their country. Every single one of the people in this discussion agreed that they supported foreign intervention.  They all agreed that they needed help from an outside source mainly because their own government is suspected of committing the chemical attack.  Also, the people agreed that allowing foreign intervention into their country would reduce the number of casualties rather than if nobody stepped in.  They thought this mainly because the civil war that had plagued their country had caused over 100,000 deaths already and if nobody stepped in, then the death count would only increase. 

My opinion on the first point is that the people at the meeting should flee their town.  I believe they should do this because if they stay then they have a higher chance of being attacked.  I would think that safety would be their number one priority, especially if they have a family to take care of.  Even though they had their doubts whether the refugee camp was as safe as it seemed to be, I believe it is a better option than to stay in their town. 

On the other subject, I agree with the entire group that foreign intervention is a good idea.  If my country was in a civil war and it put myself and possibly my family in danger, I would be upset if other countries didn’t do anything to help us.  I think the people in the group made the right choice on this subject.